D awadem n tsekla yettwassnen deg yal tama n umaḍal, yettwasuɣel ɣer ḥdac n tutlayin, Mulud Mɛemri d amaru azzayri yettwagedlen s tirni deg Lezzayer, isem-is ala s tmara i d-yettbin deg tɣamsa tazzayrit. Ula d yiwen seg wukkuẓ n yidlisen-is i d-yeffɣen mbeɛd “Le Banquet” ur d-telli fell-as taɣuri deg tɣamsa tazzayrit (ala “révolution africaine”, i as-igan amagrad i udlis “La traversée” ... 4 n yiseggasen mbeɛd mi d-yeffeɣ. Ma neɛzem ad d-nessegzi tagnit-a, ad d-nini Mouloud Mammeri d amaru i ixeddmen lecɣal deg tsusmi ur nḥemmel tirzaf ɣer tnariyin n tɣamsa.

Ugar n waya. Deg lawan ideg ttarran tijmilin (s usbeddi n temliliyin tussnanin, iḍan n usfuggel, ussan n tezrawin, asizreg) i kra n yimura, ula d tasuddut, bexlaf tasemlilt “classiques maghrébins” n Udiwan n Tezrigin Tisdawanin, ur ixemmem ad yerr tajmilt neɣ xersum ad d-yesmekti win yellan d awessar deg yimura izzayriyen ladɣa imi d win yesɛan ugar n tixutert gar-asen. Ayɣer tasusmi-ya n tɣamsa mgal n yiwen n umaru ameqran i ɣɣaren s waṭas, ayɣer tibawt n usqerdec ɛinanin tektiwin d yimahilen, n yiwen n waggag ur nezmir ḥedd ad yenker, bexlaf izernan ur nesɛi azal? Mammeri amdan tikwal yettwazref, ma d amaru xeṭṭa-xeṭṭa i yettwazrew.

Imura izzayriyen i teḥres temhersa akken ad inigen seg tmurt, Mouloud Mammeri yella d amezwaru i d-yuɣalen ɣer tmurt mbeɛd timunent. D aselway amezwaru n tdukla n yimura izzayriyen, iɛedda-d seg tallit tamanegt “tamsuddut” ideg i d-ssuturen rray-is deg yiɣmisen, tallit ideg i d-ssulin taceqquft-ines n umezgun “Le Foehn”, ONCIC tfares-d asaru seg wungal-ines “L’Opium et le Bâton”. Syin, yejbed iman-is seg tmeggugt-a n yiseɣ d yiserha unsiben, Mouloud Mammeri iger ɣer tira d unadi yettulmessen s tmezgiwt ɣer kra n tektiwin d kra n tesnaktiwin, tidmi i yeffɣen attalen, taselḍin lqayen, temɣed n tḥerci ur yezmir ḥedd ad yenker.

S umata d aneggal maca d bab n umezgun daɣen, Mouloud Mammeri i d-yefares ara aṭas n yidlisen : ukkuẓ n wungalen, snat n tceqqufin n umezgun, sin n wammuden n tmucuha i warrac deg rebɛa utlatin n yiseggasen. Imura imeqqranen imeɣrabiyen i yebdan deg yiseggasen n 50 – umi ssawalen “tasut n 52” – d netta i d-yuran drus.Aya yettwasegzay s tikci tameqrant i d-yefka deg wannaren-nniḍen s leqdicat n tesnalest, tajerrumt, tasnilest neɣ n tsekla yerzan taɣult n yidles amaziɣ. Tikci-ya d tamguccelt rnu d tabɣast, tesɛa tixutert meqqren deg tasut-aya. Ulac ccek imi asefti-ya deg tegmi yesseɛkem aṭas deg yifarisen imnugal n Mouloud Mammeri.

Maca tella yiwet n tamawt yesɛan azal, tikkelt-a s tidet, deg wayen yerzan amahil-a : talɣa-ynes timezgit. Gar “La Colline Oubliée (1952) akked La Traversée (1982), ur d-nettaf ara amhaz yettwassnen neɣ asmenyet deg uswir n tira. Ɣas ma Mouloud Mammeri, mačči am Kateb Yacine, bu yiwen n ungal, yettbin-d deg udlis-ines amenzu (mebla ccek d yiwen gar yidlisen i icebḥen mliḥ deg tsekla tamaɣrabit), yella yesɛa tikti lqayen, tusdidt ɣef uɣanib-ines, n talɣa akked tɣessa ara yebnun amahil-ines akken ma yella.

D amesɣanib amensay, ur nelli d amsetrar ; yettaru yiwet n tutlayt “yemmecḥen” maca ur neṭṭerḍeq ur tesnazzer. Daymi ur yeffir ara annect-a imi d-yesmektay tirwest-ines deg tsekla taklasikit tafransist neɣ tameɣradt, aɛjab-ines deg Racine. Yemgarad daɣen ɣef Mohamed Dib i, seg 1962, yewwin tira-ines ɣer yisuga werjin yekcem.

Ayen i d-ijebbden deg umahil n Mammeri, d udem-a n telqey d tnezwi yugaren asitrer neɣ aseɣzi. Ula d adlis n umaru ur d-yettak lwelha n umahil uzrib neɣ tegnit. Nettḥulfu deg yal tama s tefrit, asnas akked lḥirfa n umaru ur nketteb alama nnejmaɛent-d snat n tewtilin : tamara akked useggem. Ma yettaru tikwal s waɣan (adlis am Le sommeil du juste ur yeddi ara d tekti-ya?), ur yettwali ara belli aya ur yesɛi taḍfi, ccbaḥa – nezmer ad d-nini – d tamuɣli ɣer tsutwin i d-iteddun.

Deg tdiwennit-a akked Mouloud Mammeri, nwala ad nɛeddi srid ɣer yiswi. Ur nesɛi ara tameslayt d umaru i yebdan amecwar-is hah kan ideg ifarisen-ines d yisenfaren-ines nezmer ad ten-negzu s sshala maca d aggag yuɣen yal taɣult i yellan deg wannar ugar n 30 n yiseggasen. Yuɛer fell-anneɣ akken ad nɛeddi mebla telqey ɣef udmawen i yesɛa umaru-ya. D tagruma n tneqqiḍin n uskasi i d-yettwaḥettmen fell-aɣ. Tefren ugar amaru ɣef umasnales (yesɛan ula d netta tixutert). Asirem-nneɣ, ad nezmer ad nɣer, akkin i tzernin yeffɣen i tsekla, yiwen seg yimura imeqranen.

 

Tahar Djaout

Lpari, ass n 24 deg wember 1986

 

TALLIT N TZEKWIN

 

- Zemreɣ ad bduɣ s talɣa-ya n uɣelluy ?

- Aya ad aɣ-yemneɛ deg lehder n udiwenni.

- Ungal-inek amenzu yeffeɣ-d deg 1952. Aql-aɣ deg 1986. Mi ara terreḍ s tmuɣli ɣer deffir, 34 n yiseggasen-a yezrin, dacu d iḥulfan-ik ?

- Qqareɣ belli usiɣ-d deg yiwen n lweqt igerzen, maca ur yeshil ara.

- Ayɣer ?

- Acku talliyin n usikket am tin i nedder, mazal nettidir deg-s ar assa ... ɣas s talɣiwin-nniḍen ... dayen i ifazen deg tudert ... ɣas akken tesduxay ... Ḥsiɣ belli tagnit-a tezga deg waṭas n tmura ... yerna tuɣal d ticraḍ n tallit ideg nettidir.

Tugna n waggag yeqqimen, yugmen deg ttbutat akked tefrit iweqmen, i igerzen tikwal ... tgerrez-ak?

Ala ! Aɣbel, ur yelli ara deg tegnatin zzhu ..., maca ... ahat daɣen d tamsalt n ṭṭbiɛa ... ttwaliɣ belli ur yelhi ara deg 1986 ad yeqqim yiwen, yefra-tt deg temsal, igerrez ; aya merra s tefrit iweqmen. Axaṭer deg 1986, dduxa, d ttbut akked tesnaktiwin ... Imdanen rran yes-sent ifarisen i yettwasudren mebla ceḥḥa. Ur yelli wass ideg ɣur-sen ad fernen gar tenfaliyin-a yemgarade, yennemgaken, yemmyzeɛlen...

- Dayen igerzen neɣ ala ?

 

- Dayen ibanen, lemmer tilelli n ufran tella s tidet, maca teẓriḍ belli annect-a, deg tidet, ur yelli ara. Tisemsal yettusḥeqren s waṭas, i d-yettbinen s uferɛen, d tid i yeɣɣaren s waṭas ɣer tlelli... Mebla ccek leɛyaḍ n tiɣra yetteɣram-d facal n ufakul neɣ yetteffer-it. Deg taggara n tsut-aya n usbuɣɣer n tnaktiwin, ayen nettraju, d tadukli n ssmaḥ gar tɣermin i yettnadin akken ma llant akken ad aɣ-nehrent... D anemgal i la iḍerrun. Yal tamesgida tettsuɣu ɛinani ... ɛinani neɣ s tuffra, ma zemreɣ ad d-iniɣ, ... belli ala nettat i d-yezgan deg tidet. Yal tamesgida tɛewwel ad tesserɣ yal amdan ur nettxemmim ara, ur nettidir ara, ur nettargu ara akken tebɣa...war ma tfaq belli tirect n ṭṭmana tlaq akken ad yamen yiwen w ad isuɣ belli ala nettat i yesɛan tidet, deg lawan ideg imeyyaten n yimdanen ttidiren deg leɣlaḍ ... imi ttxemmimen akken-nniḍen.

Aql-aɣ ihi neffel akkin i tsekla !

Ala, imi ... d tidet yettwassnen, maca deg kra n tɣawsiwin yettwassnen yelha ma yesmekta-ten-id walbaɛḍ ... acku limmer teqqim kan tsekla deg yimi n tsegnit ... mebla wayen i as-d-yezzin ... tili ḥebsen aṭas aya medden deg tira.

D ugur ameqran yesɛan tixutert akken ad nessezwir yes-s tameslayt s ubellez ... mebla ccek ad nuɣal ɣur-s akka kra n teswiɛt.

Dayen i ibanen ! Ayen i la d-heddreɣ, iwakken ad d-rreɣ ɣef usteqsi-ynek ... imi ḥsiɣ belli tukmisin n uḥric-a wis sin n tusut tis 20, deg umezruy i icewlen, akken icewwlen ula deg wayen s i ttamnen medden ... Tuget n yirgazen d tlawin n tsuta-ynu, ɣur-sen annect-a yesɛa azal d ameqran. Deg wayen i yi-yiɛnan, luleɣ ɣer taggara n ṭṭrad agreɣlan amezwaru ... nniqal i d-yewwi ad yili d ṭṭrad aneggaru ... mi d-yewweḍ wis sin ... 20 n yiseggasen mbeɛd, am deg wungalen, ..., lliɣ deg leɛmer ideg i d-wwḍeɣ ad kkiɣ ... Deg teɣzi n 4 n yiseggasen xnubreɣ deg kra n tamawin n Tefriqt akked Turuft ideg irgazen ttnuɣen ... neɣ ttmettaten ... ɣef temsal i d-yeḍḥan d timqedsin ... d timmunin ... seg tama d tama-nniḍen ... Twalaḍ ur neffil ara s waṭas akken i t-id-nenna zgelli ...

Deg wayen i yi-yerzan, tamentilt ɣef wacu i d-yewwi ad nnaɣeɣ tban, ɣas ma mačči  d lebɣi-w seg tazwara. Seg tama d tilelli, d tugdut ... deg tama-nniḍen d tasnaraft, d leḥqara ... Kra n wussan qbel ad iyi-iserḥen ..., nella deg Lalman ... ttwaliɣ kra n yifesyanen –irumiyen– n ubaṭayu-nneɣ stewtiwen, ḥebbsen deg tmeslayt yal mi ara wḍeɣ ɣur-sen. Kra n wussan mbeɛd, wwiɣ-d s lexber belli ass n 8 deg mayyu deg tama n Kherrata, Setif ... Ass n 8 mayyu, d ass-nni n rbaḥa s timad-is, d rrbeḥ n wid yettḥaddin ɣef tlelli, ɣef tugdut, atg.

Anamek-is dakken ṭṭrad agreɣlan wis sin yezmer ur d-tettili d taneggarut ula d nettat. Yezmer ad yili waya. Ur ɛeddan ara 10 n yiseggasen tikkelt-a. Deg wember 54. Sɛiɣ 37 n yiseggasen ; ad sɛuɣ 44 mi tekfa tegrawla n uslelli. Ayen yeḍran seg yimir yesnekni Izzayriyen akken ma llan. Ur telli tmara akken ad t-id-alseɣ da.

I lemmer, tzemreḍ ad tbeddleḍ tallit n tlalit ... tallit qbel ... ayɣer ala ... umbeɛd ?

Ala. Mačči imi d turda ur nesɛi azal, ur d-yewwi ad necleɛ deg umaḍal amek ara yili ... ur ẓriɣ ara ... Lemmer ur d-yusi ɣer ddunit Napoléon ... Lemmer Qerṭaj terna Rrum ... Lemmer inselmen ur ten-id-ẓẓɛen ara seg Lispan. Ala, ttwaliɣ belli tallit i d-yezwaren timunnent d timsidert i uzzayri ... Ɣas akken aṭas n ccḥani i iɛebba.

Mi ara srewseɣ tagnit tamirant ɣef tin ideg i d-luleɣ, s wayen merra i d-yewwin d ineḍruyen gar-asent, ttwaliɣ belli ulac ungal neɣ amugi i izemren ad d-yalsen tallit-a s tefrey. Luleɣ deg yiwet n taddart meẓẓiyen deg tqacuct n yiwet n tewrirt deg tmurt n leqbayel. Tudert i nedder, tettcabi s waṭas ɣer tin ideg ddren wat zik. Neṭṭuref ɣef ddunit : ulac iberdan, ulac trisiti, ulac tilifun. ṭṭbib i iqerben ɣur-nneɣ yezga-d ɣer 18 n yikilumitren ɣef ubrid n udrar. Maca, zzher i nesɛa, d aɣerbaz i d-tesker tegduda tafransist tis 3 seg tlaykit tamneɣmast i tt-d-yebnan akken ad tili ɣer tama n uɣerbaz amasiḥi.

D zzher i tesɛam s lebni n uɣerbaz-a.

D tidet ... d tasurift ... maca, mebla tasurift-a, anwa i yeẓran dacu ara d-grin luluf n yinelmaden i d-yeffɣen deg-s (yebna deg 1883, ma cfiɣ, deg tallit tuṣṣidt n uɣerbaz alayki), anwa yeẓran wacu n tudert i ddren yinelmaden-a. Aɣerbaz, yella ... xersum deg tazwara ... d ṭṭaq-nneɣ ɣer umaḍal. Ɣas yella tiṭwiqin n tmusni yella wayen i ɣ-ɣeflen ... Anect-a, rriɣ-d s lbal iseggasen mbeɛd ... ɣas akka, d lexlas s i nettuḥettem.

Imir-nni, d ṭṭaq yekkin deg lebni n uxxam. Aɣerbaz-a yekki ɣer taddart, deg lebni yemmug axir, ɣas akken ur yemgarad ara s waṭas ɣef yixxamen yedlen tawrirt. Ttruḥuɣ ḥafi deg udfel, nleɛɛeb uraren n wid i ɣ-yezwaren. Anemhal n uɣerbaz (meqqer deg leɛmer) yettmeslay tamaziɣt am nekni, arraw-is daɣen. Zgan medden ssuturen-iyi-d ayɣer i as-fkiɣ azwel-a i wungal-inu amezwaru i d-yettbinen yemmengal ... aḍris akken ma yella ad t-yeskiddeb. D tugna taḥeqqanit n taddart i d-yeqqimen deg lbal-iw i yi-demren ɣer uzwel-a ... taddart ttun medden, yettun ula d iman-is.

11 n yiseggasen i sɛiɣ mi fɣeɣ taddart werjin ttuɣ deg temẓi-w. Deg tallit-a sɛiɣ zzher – ahat d awal i ilaqen – zzher-iw, deg umkan ideg ara ruḥeɣ, am yimidwan-inu merra, ɣer kra n temdinin testeɛmer Fransa deg Lezzayer ... timdinin ur nesɛi rruḥ, timdinin mebla taẓuri ... akken i ssneɣ fell-asent ... ruḥeɣ ɣer Lmerruk ... Lmerruk n yiseggasen 30 ideg imdanen zgan ttnaɣen ɣef tlelli-nsen ... lɛerc aneggaru yewwin tilelli yessers sslaḥ 4 n yiseggasen segmi wwḍeɣ.

Rbaṭ ideg wwḍeɣ, tella yakan d tamdint taqdimt yezzuzen usmekti n tmurt Tandalusit, tamdint ttun medden daɣen ... amezruy n Lmerruk yura acḥal n tustwin ɣef Fas d Merrakec d ccwiya Meknas ... Ttun-tt, ɣas tedder, tedda yifrigen n tatrara i d-yettbinen ɣef yiḥricen-is yebnan neɣ ɣef wayen i d-ḥekkun fell-as, d tamdint n talwit.

Imidwan-inu n « la Colline oubliée » akken ma llan ttneggizen seg yizri n yiwellihen d tidmiwin ur ntettu ar tsut tis 20, tasut n tudrin timhersanin i icemten. I nekk, unfen-iyi s tsurift n tallit talemmast i iḥuz seg rrif tatrara. Tasnawit ideg lliɣ, tella ḍ tin n warraw n yixeddamen d yimhersan irumiyen. Ala nekk d sin n yimerrukiyen i yellan d at wakal.

Sɛeddaɣ 4 n yiseggasen deg Rbaṭ, qbel ma d-ruḥeɣ ɣer tesnawit n Lezzayer, imir dɣa, ḥsiɣ belli beddleɣ amzellaw. D anermis-inu amenzu d umaḍal-a ur nelli d tudrin yettwattun neɣ n temdinin n tallit talemmast, amaḍal n temhersa mebla rrqem ... Imi Lmerruk yella waṭas n rrqem deg-s. Sneɛmilen am akken ttqadaren talɣiwin  deg tmetti iɛemren s leɛyub. Deg Lezzayer teḍra-yaɣ am wid yetturaren, am win umi teɣleq dduminu, ... meɛna yeqqim-as-d dublsis.

Ur twalaḍ ara belli urar yettwaxdem seg tazwara ... ɣas tecbeḥ tceqquft ... ?

D tidet, maca deg leɛmer deg wacu i lliɣ, ẓẓiẓinen-aɣ s wayen nebɣa kan ad nwali. Armi mɣureɣ i fehmeɣ belli yella wayen yefren d wayen i dargen i wallen iɣer ur nerri s lbal.

Ahat ɣellint tewriqin n wurar-a s waṭas mi tkecmeḍ ɣer tesdawit. Acḥal yid-wen i tellam d at wakal deg Tmezdeyt n Lezzayer?

Mbeɛd Lbak, ur ruḥeɣ ara ɣer tmezdeyt n Lezzayer. Deg tallit ideg yettunefk wazal i Talsanin (lliɣ d aseklan) ruḥeɣ ɣer Fransa. Din i yi-d-yeṭṭef ṭṭrad ... ṭṭrad agreɣlan wis sin ... Imir dɣa i yi-tdemmer ɣer umezruy ameqran ... Lmerruk, Ṭṭelyan, Fransa, Lalman ... rnu ɣur-s rrbaḥa ... i wiyaḍ ... nekni tsaḥ-aɣ-d tikli tameqqrant ... amek i tebɣiḍ ɛni ad beddleɣ tallit?

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